Article 15 of the Energy Efficiency Directive (EED 2012/27/EU, of 25 October 2012 on energy efficiency, amending Directives 2009/125/EC and 2010/30/EU and repealing Directives 2004/8/EC and 2006/32/EC as adapted and adopted by EnC), and the related Annexes XI and XII, aim to maximize grid and infrastructure efficiency, to promote demand response and enhance the overall energy security. It is important to consider which measures will be implemented in Contracting Parties (CPs) in response to the Article 15 and their impact on the transport and energy distribution networks through the so-called Smart Grid concept. In addition, together with the implementation of the Smart Grid concept we need to address the collaterals as well, which are unavoidably coming in a package with the usage of a new internet based technologies. The Directive on security of network and information systems (NIS Directive 2016/1148 not adapted and adopted by EnC yet), as well as overall Regulatory framework imposed by ENISA – European Union Agency for Network and Information Security, which are the first pieces of EU-wide legislations on cybersecurity. Those provide legal measures to boost the overall level of cybersecurity in the EU, including very important part dedicated to the Energy Industry.
As defined by the International Energy Agency, “a Smart Grid is an energy network that uses digital and other advanced technologies to monitor and manage the transport of energy from all generation sources to meet the varying energy demands of end-users”. The aim of Smart Grids is to maximize system reliability, resilience and stability and minimize costs and environmental impacts by coordinating the needs and resources of end-users and generation, grid and market operators. Since smart grids are mainly based on the information sharing, the new information and communication technologies are their vital enabler. The first levels of smartness are ensured by smart meters and standardised comunication protocols. This is a well known and already recognized as a number one measure, but also there are other possible „smart“ moves forward which are focused on the combination of the software solutions and new mechanisms to be developed. SmartEnC joins together distributed generation, system flexibility, the use of renewable energy sources, transmission/distribution system optimisation, demand side management into improved TSO/DSO system operation and overall outlook of the future energy market, puting focus on the Prosumer, DSO, TSO and Market interactions, secured with the advanced Cyber Security measures.
Smart Grid concept is actualy already well known to the electricity generation, transmssion and distribution subsystems. Systems such as SCADA – Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition, EMS – Energy Management System, MMS – Market Management System for TSOs and DSOs, as well as AGC – Automatic Generation Control, Secundary Control, different automatisation systems for Generation units, are in use for the last decade, or for some of the listed systems even decades. Smart Grid is a new name for the, as mantioned, concept already partialy present on the TSO, DSO and electricity generation levels, with the intention to introduce new players, new mechanisms and new technologies into the overall „smart“ picture. Here proposed concept identifies directions in which that enrichment of the existing systems should move in order to establish a full Smart Grid concept in the EnC region, sa called SmartEnC:
- improvements of the existing IT systems, taking into account new-smart technologies,
- introducig consumers and distributed producers (generation), so called prosumers, as new entities, players in the overall system,
- reestablishment and introduction of new communication chanels and data exchanges between TSOs and DSOs, as well as introduction of the prosumers and other market players into the overall communication scheme,
- developemnt of necessary data exchange formats (introducing weather data…), and
- the last layer, sort of the „blanket“ necessary for the overall new IoT based technology and concept, introducing Cyber Security to the overall picture, as well as closer cooperation of the regional security agencies and industry pertners in the field of Energy Security and Cyber Security…
The potential for savings in energy networks is huge. Technical and non-technical losses range from 4% to 17% for electricity, and range from 0.2% to 3.9% for gas. Keeping these statistics in mind, a key way to improve energy efficiency in network infrastructures is by reducing energy waste.
There are multiple measures that could be adopted:
- Hardware (smart grid infrastructure) side:
- loss reduction by using low-loss transformers,
- loss reduction by installing larger than necessary conductors to provide energy,
- balancing three-phase loads,
- distributed generation,
- the use of renewable energy sources,
- smart meeters…
- Software (smart grid apps) side:
- transmission system optimisation (tap change position optimisation),
- network reconfiguration,
- reactive power management,
- demand side management,
- improved TSO/DSO system operation.
We can easily say that measures under a1, a2, a3, b1, b2, b3 are a well known, „business as usual“, already applied measures used by all TSOs and DSOs in a larger or smaller scales. Nevertheless, for the measures a4, a5, a6, b4 and b5 there is a plenty of room for the improvements and further development.
This brings us to the topic of a smart grid apps as the future of energy, which will at the same time bring the possibility for TSO/DSO interoperability, and connection to energy generating installations, including access possibilities for micro energy generators. As defined by the International Energy Agency, “a Smart Grid is an energy network that uses digital and other advanced technologies to monitor and manage the transport of electricity from all generation sources to meet the varying electricity demands of end-users”. The aim of Smart Grids is to maximise system reliability, resilience and stability and minimise costs and environmental impacts by coordinating the needs and resources of end-users and generation, grid and market operators. Since smart grids are mainly based on information sharing, the new information and communication technologies are their vital enabler. The first levels of smartness are ensured by smart meters and standardised comunication protocols. This is a well known and already recognised as a number one measure, but also there are other possible „smart“ moves forward which are focused on the combination of one or more above mentioned, not that much tackled measures.